Solid-liquid separation

Sludges are usually mixtures of solid components and liquids. The liquid phases almost always contain solute substances.

Whereas the solute components cannot be removed immediately (see adsorbents), small particles are also frequently difficult to separate to a sufficient degree.

Equipment for solid-liquid separation

This problem is addressed by means of suitable technical equipment such as:

  • Centrifuges
  • Chamber presses
  • Belt presses
  • Revolving screens and belt filters
  • Filters
  • Flotation

Principles of chemical solid-liquid separation

In most cases a chemical conditioning of the medium to be dewatered is necessary to achieve more rapid and effective separation.

The chemical conditioning process functions according to the principle of the mutual attraction of particles with opposing charges. The surfaces of all solids in suspensions carry either a positive or a negative charge. The mostly high molecular conditioning agents (polymer or polymer flocculants) must optimize the polarized charge effect by creating a balance of charges within the system (isoelectric point). This leads to the flocculation of unwanted content, which can be separated more easily with appropriate dewatering equipment.

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